Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Revenue Recognition

Revenue Recognition
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2023
Revenue from Contract with Customer [Abstract]  
Revenue Recognition Revenue Recognition
Under ASC 606, revenue is recognized throughout the life of the executed agreement. The Company measures revenue based on consideration specified in a contract with a customer. Furthermore, the Company recognizes revenue when a performance obligation is satisfied by transferring control of the product or service to the customer which could occur over time or at a point in time.

A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct service to the customer. The transaction price of a contract is allocated to each distinct performance obligation and recognized as revenue when or as the customer receives the benefit of the performance obligation. Customers typically receive the benefit of the Company’s services as (or when) they are performed. Substantially all customer contracts provide that compensation is received for services performed to date. Payments from customers are based on billing terms established in the contracts with each customer, which vary by the type of customer and the product or services offered. Taxes assessed by a governmental authority that are both imposed on and concurrent with a specific revenue-producing transaction, that are collected by the Company from a customer, are excluded from revenue.
Nature of Products and Services
The following is a description of the Company’s products and services from which the Company generates revenue, as well as the nature, timing of satisfaction of performance obligations, and significant payment terms for each:
Direct sales
The Company provides customers with an additive manufacturing service, allowing for the customer to select the specifications of the model which they wish to have printed. Shapeways prints the 3D model and ships the product directly to the customer.
The Company recognizes the sale of products through its e-commerce website over time. Contracts involving the sale of products through its e-commerce website do not include other performance obligations. As such, allocation of the transaction price was not necessary as the entire contract price is attributed to the sole performance obligation identified.
Marketplace sales
The Company provides a platform for shop owners to list their designs through Shapeways’ marketplace website. The Company prints the 3D models and ships the product directly to the customer, handling the financial transaction, manufacturing, distribution and customer service on behalf of the shop owners. Judgment is applied to determine whether the Company is the principal or the agent, which could impact the recognition of revenue and cost of revenue within the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The Company considers whether it has the primary responsibility for fulfilling the promise to provide the specified product or service to the end user, whether it has inventory risk prior to transferring the product or service to the customer and if the Company has discretion in establishing prices. The Company acts as an agent in these arrangements where it facilitates the sales of the goods and services on behalf of third-party shop owners to end customers. The Company is considered an agent and recognizes revenue generated from these transactions on a net basis since the Company lacks the ability to establish the overall selling price of the goods or services provided to the end user.
The Company recognizes the sale of 3D printed products to customers at a point in time, specifically upon shipping the goods to the customer (FOB Origin) given the transfer of significant risks and rewards of ownership at that point in time. Contracts involving the manufacturing and delivery of 3D printed products to customers do not include other performance obligations. As such, allocation of the transaction price is not necessary as the entire contract price is attributed to the sole performance obligation identified.
Software revenue
The Company launched the first phase of its software offering under the brand "OTTO" in the fourth quarter of 2021. The software enables other manufacturers to leverage Shapeways’ existing end-to-end manufacturing software to scale their businesses and shift to digital manufacturing. Shapeways’ software offers improved customer accessibility, increased productivity, and expanded manufacturing capabilities for its customers. The Company expanded its software offering's customer base and feature set with the acquisitions of MFG and MakerOS, both completed in April 2022.
For each of the performance obligations classified as software revenue, the performance obligations are satisfied evenly over the term of the contract. For contracts including performance obligations classified as software revenue, the Company identified that each performance obligation has an explicitly stated standalone selling price. As such, allocation is not necessary as the prices included in the contract are attributed to each separate performance obligation.
The following table presents the Company's revenue disaggregated by revenue source:
Year Ended December 31,
2023 2022
Major products and service lines:
Direct sales $ 26,598  $ 25,429 
Marketplace sales 4,777  5,932 
Software 3,085  1,796 
Total revenue $ 34,460  $ 33,157 
Timing of revenue recognition:
Products transferred at a point in time $ 4,777  $ 5,932 
Products and services transferred over time 29,683  27,225 
Total revenue $ 34,460  $ 33,157 
Deferred Revenue
The Company records deferred revenue when cash payments are received in advance of performance. Deferred revenue consisted of the following:
December 31,
2023 2022
Balance at beginning of year $ 972  $ 921 
Deferred revenue recognized during year (34,460) (33,157)
Additions to deferred revenue during year 35,261 33,208
Total deferred revenue $ 1,773  $ 972 
The Company expects to satisfy its remaining performance obligations within the next twelve months. The $972 of deferred revenue as of January 1, 2023 was recognized during the year ended December 31, 2023. The opening balance of accounts receivable as of January 1, 2022 was $1,372.
Practical Expedients and Exemptions
The Company applies the practical expedient related to incremental costs of obtaining a contract. Although certain of its commission costs qualify for capitalization under ASC 340-40, Contracts with Customers, their amortization period is less than one year. Therefore, utilizing the practical expedient, the Company expenses these costs as incurred.